— Abstract

For over fifty years, women’s organizations have challenged the development paradigm. They have influenced development agencies to include women’s concerns, and led a global social movement to alter gender relations around the world. Early economic development theory rendered women and their work invisible. To challenge this social construction of gender, female scholars began to document and demonstrate women’s economic impact. Activists argued that many development programs were adversely impacting women. As a result, socio-economic transitions have altered family structure drawing greater attention to gender relationships, and opening spaces to demand women’s social and civil rights. Today development agencies speak of equality—activists work to ensure that rhetoric is matched by expenditures, and by greater women’s political power, representation and rights.

- Download this Chapter -

— Suggested Readings

Fraser, Arvonne. S. and Irene. Tinker (eds.) (2004). Developing Power: How Women Transformed International Development. New York: Feminist Press.

International Development Research Centre (Canada). (1986). Women in development: Perspectives from the Nairobi Conference. Ottawa: The Centre.

Jaquette, Jane. S., and Gale Summerfield (eds.) (2006). Women and Gender Equity in Development Theory and Practice: Institutions, Resources, and Mobilization. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Karamessini, M., & Rubery, J. (2013). Women and austerity: The economic crisis and the future for gender equality (Vol. 11). Routledge.

Kabeer, Naila. (2003). Gender mainstreaming in poverty eradication and the millennium development goals: a handbook for policy-makers and other stakeholders. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.

Kabeer, N., Ego, C., & International Development Research Centre. (2005). Intégration de la dimension genre à la lutte contre la pauvreté et objectifs du Millénaire pour le développement : Manuel à l'intention des instances de décision et d'intervention. Québec : Presses de l'Universtié Laval.

Kristof, Nicholas. and Sheryl. W. Dunn (2009). Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide. New York: Village Books. [PDF 57KB]

Mohanty, Chandra T. (2003). Feminism without Borders: Decolonizing Theory, Practicing Solidarity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Mukhopadhyay, Maitrayee, and Navsharan Singh. (2007). Gender justice, citizenship, and development. New Delhi: Zubaan, an imprint of Kali for Women.

Mukhopadhyay, Maitrayee,  Navsharan Singh & M. Dufresne. (2009). Justice de genre, citoyenneté et développement. Paris: L'Harmattan.

Sen, Gita, and Caren Grown (1987). Development, Crises, and Alternative Visions: Third World Women’s Perspectives. New York: Monthly Review Press. [PDF 500KB]